HIDDEN COSTS: Iron use Steals Alkalinity/pH and Actually Increases Hydrogen Sulfide and Corrosion

The usual discussion of sulfide removal emphasizes iron chemistry and fails to mention other reaction products resulting from the chloride and sulfate being released when the iron combines with the sulfur to form iron sulfide, a black precipitate. Additionally, iron strips alkalinity when used inside the plant. If there is also a chronic phosphorus deficiency, the result is needless organism death and higher plant biosolids disposal costs. The focus in this write-up is on odor control complications with iron sulfate.

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IRON SULFATE IS USED FOR ODOR
CONTROL IN WASTEWATER? 

1. The first step in the reaction produces iron sulfide as a precipitate and sulfuric acid. If this were all that happens in wastewater, iron would be fed at a stoichiometric rate of 4.5 lbs. of ferrous sulfate to remove 1 pound of H2S. This turns out not be the case and 2 to 3 times that amount is necessary for sulfide reduction. Why? There are competing reactions in wastewater that will consume iron. Phosphorus, chlorides, sulfates, hydroxide, carbonate, oxygen and other common compounds compete for the available iron.

2. Now let us examine what may happen to the H2SO4 that is produced as a reaction product. First, it is corrosive and works to lower the pH in the wastewater. Second, sulfuric acid rapidly dissociates and will allow SO4-2 to be used as an oxygen source by the sulfate reducing bacteria producing more H2S.

3. Theoretically, iron sulfate could produce as much sulfide as it removes stoichiometrically, which then must be removed with additional iron. Lowered wastewater pH will also allow more H2S to be released as gas.

COMPARISON TO THIOGUARD CHEMISTRY

In contrast, Thioguard does nothing to lower the pH of the wastewater, produces no reaction products that can lead to additional sulfide production, and produces no sludge to settle out in the system or to be dewatered at the WWTP. The reaction is as follows:

The Magnesium binds the sulfide in a similar manner to iron and it will not be released unless the pH drops to 5.5 which is not normal in wastewater. More importantly, Thioguard is preventative and controls the formation of sulfide by increasing the pH and retarding the Sulfate Reducing Bacteria activity.

CHOOSING THIOGUARD WILL:

THIOGUARD OX – A Thioguard Innovation

All the Benefits of THIOGUARD®, Now Available in Powdered Form

Thioguard OX

A SAFER, MORE COST-EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO BULK
HYDRATED LIME, QUICK LIME OR SODA ASH
THIOGUARD OX is a proven, premium quality, technical-grade magnesium oxide, manufactured through a proprietary process for application in municipal water and wastewater treatment. THIOGUARD OX is mined and processed exclusively by Premier Magnesia, LLC in the USA.

NO CAPITAL EXPENDITURES NECESSARY
Your existing storage and feed system can be used to deliver THIOGUARD OX without costly modifications. You can begin reaping the benefits of THIOGUARD OX without up-front costs.

SUPERIOR HANDLING
THIOGUARD OX is manufactured to an exacting particle size and specific surface area to provide the highest reactivity, and superior handling. This provides consistent performance, LESS CAKING AND “CLUMPING”, and better dispersion, which is critical to treatment plant operations, while reducing sludge generation.

ZPounds of Alkalinity Per Dry Pound

 POUND FOR POUND THIOGUARD OX DELIVERS MORE ALKALINITY
THIOGUARD OX has the highest available surface area and reactivity as a result of Premier’s proprietary manufacturing process. Wastewater treatment is performed in a sensitive biological environment wherein operation is performed at near-neutral or slightly alkaline conditions, requiring the highest reactive grade magnesium oxide available. Less reactive grades are incapable of sufficiently neutralizing acid generated in these environments, and will pass through the system unused or accumulate as sludge. THIOGUARD OX results in improved plant performance and reduced operating costs.

MULTIPLE BENEFITS & TOTAL SYSTEM TREATMENT
THIOGUARD OX is available at distribution terminals throughout the USA, and delivers Total System Treatment with multiple additional benefits. When compared to Quicklime, there is no “slaking” required. THIOGUARD OX is the practical choice that provides a safer, more cost-effective alternative.

LIME SOFTENING/SLUDGE GENERATION
Lime produces calcium carbonate in wastewater which acts as a coagulant for hardness and particulate matter. Lime may potentially increase the volume of waste sludge up to 50 percent.

THE PRACTICAL CHOICE: THIOGUARD OX

THE PRACTICAL CHOICE: THIOGUARD OX

THIOGUARD OX IS CLEARLY SUPERIOR TO HYDRATED LIME,
QUICKLIME AND SODA ASH
THIOGUARD OX, hydrated lime, quicklime, and soda ash each have different physical and chemical properties that affect how each reacts with the systems to which they are added.

THIOGUARD OX IS CLEARLY SUPERIOR TO HYDRATED LIME, QUICKLIME AND SODA ASH

VISIT THIOGUARD.COM TO LEARN HOW THIOGUARD OX CAN IMPROVE PLANT PERFORMANCE AND REDUCE OPERATING COSTS

 

 

Magnesium’s Impact on Vitamin D Intake

The influence that magnesium has on the way our bodies process vitamin D has big implications for bone health. The studies suggest that taking a magnesium supplement can help people reach their desired level of vitamin D faster. Not only can they reach that level faster, but magnesium may also more effectively facilitate the actions of vitamin D on bone health. An additional 200 mg of magnesium is all it should take to get the average person up to an adequate intake.13% improvement in cake solids with greatly reduced water weight. Drier cake solids means less to haul, and fewer loads translates directly into operational savings.

  • Magnesium is important in regulating levels of vitamin D.

  • Many Americans fail to get enough magnesium as well
    as vitamin D in their diet.

  • Improving levels of both minerals could improve bone strength
    and lower risk of cancer and heart disease.

For more information about the health benefits of Magnesium click here

Thioguard is the Right Tool for Wastewater Treatment Applications

One Unique Product, Many Problems Solved

Harness the versatility and power of Thioguard for optimal treatment and maximum resource recovery, in addition to odor control and corrosion prevention.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN YOUR COLLECTION SYSTEM

Odors | Corrosion | FOG (Fats, Oil, Grease) | Air Relief

Customers can “dial in” the desired level of treatment. Optimal acid neutralization prevents premature infrastructure corrosion and/or replacement, and adds numerous benefits downstream. Thioguard can reduce FOG related SSOs. Thioguard has been proven to reduce pumping costs on long force mains.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) | TSS (Total Suspended Solids)
NH3 (Ammonia) | Phosphorus | FOG

Thioguard is the only liquid phase treatment, when used in the collection system,
that can enhance the treatment process at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN BIOSOLIDS TREATMENT

Digestion | CH4 Methane Production Enhanced DewateringThioguard added to the collection system or sludge digestion process improves the digestion and dewatering processes at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN NUTRIENT REMOVAL/MODIFICATION

Thioguard added at the plant or collection system is the only odor control strategy
that can have positive influence on a BNR process.

Thioguard: The Safe Alternative

FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER COLLECTION
SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

 

One total system treatment (Thioguard® TST) replaces multiple chemical additives, saving money and hassle.

Technical grade magnesium hydroxide is environmentally safe, non-hazardous and safe to handle.

Thioguard® will provide a no-cost, no-obligation
expert system assessment.

Thioguard® provides positive plant benefits for nitrification, biosolids production & digester performance.

Technical grade magnesium hydroxide provides highest pounds of alkalinity per gallon, compared to any other additive.

 

The Solution to Your F.O.G. Problem is THIOGUARD

The accumulation of fats, oils, and grease can be dramatically reduced through the use of THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide. THIOGUARD® is a strong base, and a moderate pH adjuster, which adds non-carbonate alkalinity to the wastewater. As pH increases, fats, oils, and grease become more soluble. The practical effect on municipal wastewater systems is a rapid, dramatic reduction in fat, oils, and grease buildup within the collection, transport and treatment structures.

 THIOGUARD® does NOT transfer F.O.G. problems “downstream,”
only to reappear in your plant.

THIOGUARD® eliminates the problem, by improving the immediate environment, allowing “good bacteria” to perform their function. By the time the wastewater reaches your reclamation facility, the majority of the F.O.G. has been either consumed or reduced to simpler organics.

The addition of THIOGUARD® boosts pH levels, THROUGHOUT your system, PREVENTING the conditions that encourage the deposition of grease, which can clog lines, and accumulate on the surface of pump stations and your treatment plant. With improved pH, solubility is increased significantly, by a factor of 10x in some cases. THIOGUARD® is typically added through a single Feed Unit, and provides multiple benefits throughout your system, from source to discharge.

THIOGUARD® provides the greatest power to neutralize acid over long infrastructure distances, while providing additional benefits to your waste water treatment plant’s biological treatment processes. The chart below compares alkalinity per gallon, illustrating the superiority of THIOGUARD® against other commonly used treatment options.

THIOGUARD® Cuts through F.O.G. and Delivers
Multiple System-Wide Benefits

The benefits of adding THIOGUARD® to your treatment processes are not limited to the prevention or reduction of F.O.G., through sustainable and balanced pH levels. THIOGUARD® also prevents corrosion and dramatically reduces the formation of sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD® the best and most practical choice for your system.

Are you Magnesium Deficient?

Magnesium is arguably the most important mineral in the body, which is why magnesium deficiency can be such an issue.

According to Norman Shealy, MD, Ph.D, an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer in pain medicine, “Every known illness is associated with a magnesium deficiency and it’s the missing cure to many diseases.” Not only does magnesium help regulate calcium, potassium and sodium, but it’s essential for cellular health and a critical component of over 300 biochemical functions in the body.

Phosphorus Reduction

Presence of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater effluents and their impacts on natural water bodies are of major concern. With the recent evidence that anthropogenic phosphorus (not nitrogen) addition in micrograms per liter level can trigger algal growth, phosphorus removal to lowest level has become increasingly important.

CONCLUSIONS: THIOGUARD IMPROVES BIO-P

With 50% improvements in alkalinity and 64% improvements in Phosphorus uptake, the total sustained health of the biomass is improved and ultimately over time continued to maintain stable removal of phosphorus. Read More

Thioguard is Superior to Lime Slurry and Caustic Soda

 POUND FOR POUND, THE BEST CHOICE

On the surface, it’s easy to do the theoretical calculations and provide exact alkaline equivalents. However, field and trial experience tells us something different. The amount of high grade Thioguard – magnesium hydroxide required to achieve equivalent buffering/performance benefits in the biological reactors tends to be much lower than the calculations would suggest. Why?

Often overlooked are some of the side impacts of lime use, such as softening and pH spikes, and confusion about what standard total alkalinity tests are telling us. An easy way to find out the extent of softening that is taking place in your facility, is to filter your sample with a 0.45 micron filter before titration. This will remove the insoluble CaCO3 particles that are not “biologically available.” Another significant, yet overlooked impact is the EPA documented sludge production typically associated with lime.

EPA – wastewater technology fact sheet – chemical precipitation: “the addition of treatment chemicals, especially lime, may increase volume of waste sludge up to 50%.”

 LIME SOFTENING = ALKALINITY REMOVAL

Lime is commonly used in potable water to “soften,” or remove hardness minerals, such as calcium and magnesium from drinking water, in an effort to minimize the effects of potential scaling in the water distribution system. However, in the softening process, calcium and magnesium are removed from water in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) which are also forms of alkalinity. Removing hardness from water also removes alkalinity.

Lime SofteningIn wastewater, lime is often considered as an alkalinity supplement. However, the effects of lime softening can have undesirable consequences to the biological system, e.g., removal of alkalinity, creation of CaCO3 sludge, and the potential for bio-upsetting pH spikes.

Hot Zones Temperate ZonesThe simple fact: Thioguard and lime slurry have different physical and chemical properties that affect how each responds to and reacts with the systems to which they are added. And because of these differences in properties, the impacts they impart and the utility for their use are starkly different.

 DID YOU KNOW…

  • Because of the high solubility of both caustic soda and lime, pH often becomes biologically prohibitive before ideal alkalinity levels and process stability can be reached.
  • The use of lime in, or prior to, primary treatment can actually reduce alkalinity going into the secondary treatment processes by precipitating CaCO3 in the primary clarifiers, or by converting bio-available soluble alkalinity into insoluble alkalinity in the biological reactors

Hydrated Lime added in collection systems increases O&M costs
related to formation of scale and accumulated solids/sludge.
In severe cases this leads to line blockages and SSO’s

The use of lime generates significant amounts of sludge in wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. On a chemical basis, one ton of lime can generate as much as 5 tons of 20% sludge cake to remove or dispose. In contrast, Thioguard reactions in wastewater produce only water and water-soluble products as TDS with NO added sludge. In fact, customers using Thioguard have reported reductions of 15%-25% in total solids/sludge produced, due to a combination of improved biological performance, divalent cation bridging of floc matrix, and reduced inorganic solids loading.

Most wastewater treatment plant operators understand that their wastewater treatment plants function best at some ideal pH and that a minimum amount of alkalinity is required to keep microorganisms happy. But too often, the values of pH and alkalinity are incorrectly used interchangeably, and a thorough understanding of each parameter’s true relationship to biological stability and optimal performance – gets lost in the translation.

Most often this error in terminology stems from the use of the most common alkaline pH modifiers and alkalinity supplements, caustic soda and lime, where their use may successfully meet pH demands, but will likely fall short in supplying adequate alkalinity requirements without adversely elevating pH beyond biologically healthy limits. And often, maintaining pH stability and uniformity across entire treatment basins remains a virtual impossibility.

Compared to caustic soda or lime, Thioguard is capable of supplying significantly more alkalinity in a bio-available form to a microbial wastewater system without adversely affecting pH. This creates a more suitable environment for bioremediation of BOD and nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. Moreover, because magnesium supplies a light-weight, divalent cation, unlike the monovalent sodium in caustic, and heavier calcium in lime, Thioguard helps to generate a denser, more easily dewatered sludge, with a higher percentage of cake solids.

Lb.s Alkalinity Per Gallon

DID YOU KNOW…

  • It takes 100+ mg/L of Thioguard to raise a water sample to pH 8.8.
  • This same 100 mg/L of Thioguard has the same neutralizing power as 138 mg/L of caustic soda and 135 mg/L of lime and would be the equivalent of, though significantly more reactive than, adding 172 mg/ L calcium carbonate alkalinity on a CaCO3 basis, assuming 100% bicarbonate conversion.

Thioguard Reactor systems treated to an initial pH of 8.5 using Thioguard, caustic soda and lime.Equivalent amounts of acid added to each over time.

NOW THAT’S POWER!

Daily Dose with Dr. Oz: Magnesium

Dr. Oz Investigates…

Magnesium has been in the spotlight lately and getting a lot of attention from health experts. This mineral plays a role in the physiological functions of the brain, heart, and muscles. Researchers continue to study how it can help your health by improving sleep, fighting depression, and reducing the risk of disease. You may want to consider adding a magnesium supplement to your daily routine and eating foods that are rich in magnesium, like leafy greens and pumpkin seeds. As always, make sure to speak to your doctor before making any major health changes. Want to learn more about the benefits? Check out six of the most significant reasons to give magnesium a try.