Why Is Anthraquinone Not Added To Thioguard® To Improve Its Performance?

The addition of anthraquinone is thought to enhance suppression of hydrogen sulfide in municipal wastewater by perturbing the mitochondrial electron transport chain in sulfate reducing bacteria, thus inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation (respiration).

For this reason, we are often asked why polyphenolic compounds such as anthraquinone are not added to THIOGUARD® to enhance its performance?

Premier's engineers and scientists are very familiar with polyphenols and work with these compounds in the appropriate setting. However our company, and others, also believe that the addition of anthraquinone-containing compounds to municipal wastewater, at any concentration, presents the potential for unintended consequences and needless liability for our company and our customers.

Chemical CAS No. Toxicological Endpoint Listing Mechanism1
Anthraquinone 84-65-1 Cancer AB

For example, effective September 28, 2007, Anthraquinone (CAS No. 84- 65-1) was listed as a chemical known to cause cancer in the State of California. The listing of this chemical is based on formal identification by an authoritative body (i.e., the National Toxicology Program (NTP), that the chemical causes cancer. The criteria used by OEHHA for the listing of chemicals under the "authoritative bodies" mechanism can be found in Title 22, Cal. Code of Regs., section 12306.

Moreover, it has been established that in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plant, "if anthraquinone enters with the feed, an aerobic post-treatment process will not lead to elimination of the xenobiotic substrate; on the contrary the already modified anthraquinone will reappear in the effluent.2

Ring fission, leading to complete mineralization of anthraquinone compounds has been shown not to occur under conditions commonly found in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Agencies opting to use polyphenolics in water are cautioned to read and follow label directions carefully. These compounds have recently been identified as carcinogenic, and appropriate safety, insurance and bonding is recommended to help adequately protect the general public, as well as the agency opting to use this chemical.

1 Listing mechanism: AB – "authoritative bodies" mechanism (Title 22, Cal. Code of Regs. section 12306)
2 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (1996) 45:719—722


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