Nurturing the Brain with Magnesium

At THIOGUARD®, we are concerned with all things magnesium, so when we run across an article like this one on Brain Blogger, we want to share it. It is about the health benefits of magnesium on the brain. We hope you enjoy the article.

Magnesium is everywhere – it does not occur free in nature, only in combination with other elements, but it is the eighth most abundant chemical element in the Earth’s crust and the third most abundant element in seawater; it is even the ninth most abundant in the Milky Way. In the human body, magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion and the eleventh most abundant element by mass, being stored in bones, muscles, and soft tissues.

Magnesium is fundamental for health: it is essential to all cells and to the function of hundreds of enzymes, including enzymes that synthesize DNA and RNA, and enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism, many of which are vital. Magnesium is involved in virtually every major metabolic and biochemical process in our cells and it plays a critical role in the physiology of basically every single organ.

Low plasma levels of magnesium are common and are mostly due to poor dietary intake, which has lowered significantly in the last decades. Magnesium can be found in high quantities in foods containing dietary fiber, including green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. But although magnesium is widely distributed in vegetable and animal foods, some types of food processing can lower magnesium content up to 90%. Also, the soil used for conventional agriculture is becoming increasingly deprived of essential minerals. In the last 60 years, the magnesium content in fruit and vegetables has decreased by around 20 to 30%.

Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in healthy people is not very frequent, but a consistently poor dietary supply of magnesium has insidious effects. Magnesium deficiency alters biochemical pathways and increases the risk of a wide range of diseases over time, namely hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches, for example.

In the brain, magnesium is an important regulator of neurotransmitter signaling, particularly glutamate and GABA, the main neurotransmitters by modulating the activation of NMDA glutamate receptors and GABAA receptors. It also contributes to the maintenance of adequate calcium levels in the cell through the regulation of calcium channels’ activity.

These physiological roles make magnesium an essential element in important neuronal processes. Magnesium participates in the mechanisms of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity, and consequently, learning and memory. Accordingly, increased levels of magnesium in the brain have been shown to promote multiple mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that enhance different forms of learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. Increased levels of magnesium in the brain have also been linked to an increased proliferation of neural stem cells, indicating that it may promote the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis) in adulthood. This is an important feature because neurogenesis is a key mechanism in the brain’s structural and functional adaptability, in cognitive flexibility, and in mood regulation.

Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to modulate the neuroendocrine system and to improve sleep quality by promoting slow wave (deep) sleep, which, among many other functions, is also important for cognition and memory consolidation.

Furthermore, magnesium may enhance the beneficial effects of exercise in the brain, since it has been shown to increase the availability of glucose in the blood, muscle, and brain, and diminish the accumulation of lactate in the blood and muscles during exercise.

But just as increasing magnesium levels can be beneficial, magnesium deficiency can have serious harmful effects.

Magnesium has important roles in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes and modulation of brain blood flow. In circumstances of magnesium deficiency, all of these functions can potentially be dysregulated, laying ground for neurological disorders. Also, in a context of low magnesium availability in the brain, NMDA glutamate receptors, which are excitatory, may become excessively activated, and GABAA receptors, which are inhibitory, may become insufficiently activated; this can lead to neuronal hyperactivity and to a condition known as glutamate excitotoxicity. This causes an excessive accumulation of calcium in neurons, which in turn leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and, ultimately, to neuronal cell death.

Magnesium deficiency has been associated with several neurological and psychiatric diseases, including migraine, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Magnesium supplementation has shown beneficial effects on many of these conditions, as well as in post-stroke, post-traumatic brain injury, and post-spinal cord injury therapies. This therapeutic action is likely due to its action in blocking NMDA glutamate receptors and decreasing excitotoxicity, in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and in increasing blood flow to the brain, all of which are determinant in the outcome of these conditions.

There are multiple benefits to be obtained from magnesium, both from a health promotion, and from a disease prevention and management perspective. The recommended daily intake of magnesium is of 320mg for females and 420mg for males. Too much magnesium from food sources has no associated health risks in healthy individuals because the kidneys readily eliminate the excess. However, there is a recommended upper intake level for supplemental magnesium, since it can cause gastrointestinal side effects. So, keep it below 350mg/day.


Caustic Soda = Volatile Price & Volatile Chemistry.


Caustic Soda is a HIGHLY CORROSIVE CHEMICAL listed on the Special Health Hazard Substance List. Caustic Soda on contact can burn the skin and the eyes and can cause permanent lung damage through inhalation. Caustic soda in contact with water can create enough heat to ignite combustibles and the resulting fire will produce poisonous gases. THIOGUARD® and THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S technical grade magnesium hydroxide is an effective, non-hazardous alternative to Caustic Soda. By converting to THIOGUARD®, wastewater utilities are able to eliminate hundreds of hazardous bulk tanker truck deliveries, thereby reducing insurance costs.

In addition, Caustic Soda freezes at a temperature of 52 degrees, rendering it useless for water treatment purposes, and creating additional hazards by creating increased pressure at valves with the potential unexpected eruptions or spills. When it comes to safety, Thioguard and Thioguard Omega-S technical grade magnesium hydroxide is clearly superior.

  • Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide) is hazardous to use, detrimental to personnel safety and biological processes
  • Sodium addition to wastewater upsets flocculation, settling, clarification and dewatering processes, driving up needs for polymer or metal salt use.


Caustic Soda is pricing is subject to a variety of pressures, from basic supply and demand issues to market manipulation – even international trade can cause price fluctuations. THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide offers greater “price reliability,” and delivers a safe and effective alternative to Caustic Soda.

  • Budget Uncertainty
  • Challenging Contract Management when driven to force majeure re-pricing

THIOGUARD® is a better, safe alternative to Caustic Soda.
For more information call 1.800.227.4287 or email



THIOGUARD® OMEGA-S: Nutrient Management

The chemical components of struvite (magnesium, ammonia, phosphorous) exist in every wastewater system. They are specifically found at more highly concentrated levels in biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion… yet struvite scale is not prolific at every plant. This is irrespective of their use of magnesium hydroxide. For several years, Premier has had many customers using THIOGUARD® experiencing no negative impacts from struvite.

Why? Magnesium, an ingredient in THIOGUARD®, is rarely the causative factor for struvite formation. The real explanation is the concentration ratio of the three components mentioned above, COUPLED with mechanical, hydraulic, or chemical inputs facilitating localized aqueous pH spikes, promoting high omega factors, and thus struvite formation (i.e. pump volute or mixer, turbulent elbow, excess caustic or soda ash addition).

THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S is an easy turnkey patent pending process. The THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S program is a small fraction of the cost of other aggressive methods. A few milligrams of Omega-S combined with THIOGUARD® treatment will insure that struvite will not form under any of the many circumstances that can cause the problem.

For more information call 1.800.227.4287 or email

There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close

My oldest son’s basketball tryouts are looming this week. He cares deeply about making the team and asked me what he should do to prepare. I suggested he sleep and eat well before the tryouts, which may not have been the novel or life-changing answer he was seeking. I gather he was hoping for a magic bullet, something that would make his muscles strong and flexible, deliver him energy, render him well rested, and keep stress at bay.

Now that I think of it, buddy, there just may be a magic mineral that does all of these things. Magnesium helps with energy, muscle strength, flexibility, sleep and stress management — everything you need.

Basketball tryouts are no joke. They involve hours of running, pivoting, head-to-toe muscle use and quick reflexes. Magnesium contributes to flexibility and helps to prevent injury by loosening tight muscles. Without enough magnesium, muscles can’t properly relax, possibly causing cramps. Low magnesium can create a buildup of lactic acid, known to cause post-workout pain and tightness. Also, much of the body’s energy comes from ATP, a molecule that captures chemical energy from food and uses it to fuel other processes in the body. ATP production depends on magnesium.

Magnesium obviously won’t build my son’s arm muscles in time for tryouts, but it does help the body produce more insulin-like growth factor, an essential part of long-term muscle growth and strength.

Magnesium helps to balance and control stress hormones. Specifically, magnesium is essential for the production of serotonin, which is responsible for relaxing the nervous system and lifting moods. Serotonin also contributes to healthy sleep. A lack of magnesium upends sleep not only because of its role in serotonin production but also because it topples the sleep regulating hormone melatonin.

Magnesium is one of the essential electrolytes needed for efficient hydration. Sorry to disappoint you kids that were hoping I’d recommend a Gatorade for your tryouts; instead, you need to eat real magnesium and potassium-rich foods, and drink lots of water. A few magnesium stars include leafy green vegetables, pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, almonds, cashews, pecans, walnuts, brown rice, avocado, beans, raw cacao, edamame and seaweed.

A winning smile won’t command my son a spot on the basketball team, but perhaps it will reveal him as a positive, eager player. Low magnesium leaves saliva with excess calcium and phosphorous, which can damage teeth and harm that winning smile.

Magnesium also builds strong bones, maintains heart health, helps to prevent diabetes by regulating blood sugar, prevents inflammation and strokes, boosts immunity, preserves a proper pH balance in the body, and relieves constipation. Phew. Magnesium might really be that magic bullet as it performs an essential role in every almost bodily function.

In fact, in the emergency room, magnesium is considered a critical medication for emergency heart, asthma, pregnancy preeclampsia and other life-threatening conditions because it has a relaxing effect and is found in every tissue.

Modern life conspires to steal our magnesium. Caffeine, phosphoric acid in soda, too much salt, extreme sweating, alcohol, prolonged stress, antibiotics and other medications drain our bodies of the much-needed mineral.

So how can a teenage boy, trying out for a basketball team, or not, obtain the recommended daily intake of 410 mg of magnesium? He can eat meals such as oatmeal for breakfast; a brown rice, black bean and avocado burrito for lunch; a banana with almond butter as a snack; and roasted chicken, sesame noodles and a spinach salad for dinner. One of the most relaxing ways to absorb magnesium is to take a bath with magnesium or Epsom salts. Our skin is our largest organ for ingestion into the blood system so magnesium baths can both relax us and contribute to our magnesium intake.

Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year.


All the Benefits of THIOGUARD®, Now Available in Powdered Form

TG 325 OX® is a proven, premium quality, technical-grade magnesium oxide, manufactured through a proprietary process for application in municipal water and wastewater treatment. TG 325 OX® is mined and processed exclusively by Premier Magnesia, LLC in the USA.

Your existing storage and feed system can be used to deliver TG 325 OX® without costly modifications. You can begin reaping the benefits of TG 325 OX® without up-front costs.

TG 325 OX® is manufactured to an exacting particle size and specific surface area to provide the highest reactivity, and superior handling. This provides consistent performance, LESS CAKING AND “CLUMPING”, and better dispersion, which is critical to treatment plant operations, while reducing sludge generation.

 TG 325 OX® has the highest available surface area and reactivity as a result of Premier’s proprietary manufacturing process. Wastewater treatment is performed in a sensitive biological environment wherein operation is performed at near-neutral or slightly alkaline conditions, requiring the highest reactive grade magnesium oxide available. Less reactive grades are incapable of sufficiently neutralizing acid generated in these environments, and will pass through the system unused or accumulate as sludge. TG 325 OX® results in improved plant performance and reduced operating costs.

TG 325 OX® is available at distribution terminals throughout the USA, and delivers Total System Treatment with multiple additional benefits. When compared to Quicklime, there is no “slaking” required. TG 325 OX® is the practical choice that provides a safer, more cost-effective alternative.

Lime produces calcium carbonate in wastewater which acts as a coagulant for hardness and particulate matter. Lime may potentially increase the volume of waste sludge up to 50 percent.


TG 325 OX®, hydrated lime, quicklime, and soda ash each have different physical and chemical properties that affect how each reacts with the systems to which they are added.




Preserving and Maintaining Assets:

When Implementing Asset Management/Infrastructure Planning, consider
THIOGUARD® to ensure future integrity and reliability to critical infrastructure
while enhancing operating efficiencies & costs.

Asset Management Example: Save 50% a year in 
pump stations power costs by choosing THIOGUARD®

THIOGUARD® is the ONLY commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to PREVENT CORROSION. The benefits of adding THIOGUARD® to your treatment processes are not limited to the prevention or reduction of corrosion. You will also benefit from a reduction in the formation of sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD® the Practical Choice for your system.

Measured surface pH can then be used to correlate corrosion rate
and subsequently, remaining years of useful life of concrete structure.



PROBLEM STATEMENT: Pumping and conveying of wastewater from end user through the collection system to wastewater treatment plants can result in negative conditions including gas binding, blockages associated with fats, oils and greases (FOG), and system corrosion. There may be other contributing conditions, but these factors appear to be the greatest contributors to O&M costs including energy consumption, maintenance costs, and Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs).


Save up to 50% per year in pump station power costs by choosing THIOGUARD®
as your odor, FOG and corrosion control process in your collection system.


THIOGUARD® can overcome these issues by reducing or eliminating gas emissions from wastewater, dissolving FOG blankets and reducing corrosion to pumps and infrastructure. No other product can match Thioguard’s ability to neutralize both collection system surface acid and wastewater acid over short and long distances to and through the wastewater treatment plant.

Force Main With THIOGUARD® Treatment

Force Main with No Liquid Phase Treatment

Call 1.800.227.4287 or Email

Visit to learn more about how
THIOGUARD® can help your plant!

Earth Friendly Alternative for Odor and Corrosion Prevention


  • Low Solubility – 0.0009 g/100ml, H2O solubility and high surface area of 1 acre per gallon provides long distance collection system treatment to and throughout the wastewater treatment plant
  • SRB Inhibition – reduces the ability of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) to convert sulfates to hydrogen sulfide gas
  • Magnesium Polysulfide Complexation – promotes irreversible complexation between magnesium cation and sulfides by absorbing dissolved sulfides onto the solid magnesium hydroxide particle
  • Henry’s Law – Gas/Liquid Phase Equilibrium – resulting increase in pH keeps the dissolved hydrogen sulfide gas in solution


  • pH and Alkalinity Supplementation – without adversely electing pH beyond biologically healthy limits creating a more stable environment for bioremediation of BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus
  • 1 mg/L ammonia-N requires 5.50 mg/L NaOH caustic soda or 4.16 mg/L Mg(OH)2 for elective nitrification
  • With the addition of a slowly dissolving low solubility (0.009 g/100ml) H2O particle, THIOGUARD®‘s use in aerobic and anaerobic biological digestors provides a steady reactor pH conducive for maximizing bacterial development.
  • Negatively charged microbial flora are bridged by the divalent positive charge of magnesium hydroxide forming a large floc that settles readily.
  • Biosolids Chemistry Enhancement for Land Application:
    Available magnesium in soil occupies the central position of the chlorophyll molecule/green pigment to utilize solar energy for the production of organic matter. Therefore, an adequate magnesium supply to plants may markedly increase photosynthetic activity of leaves. Also, magnesium is essential to energy (vitamin) transfer within plants.
  • Increasing filter cake solids by 20-40% percent due to divalent cation bridging improvements in floc formation and thereby significantly reducing polymer demands

Ask me how the NEW Thioguard Omega-S program
can help you take advantage of THIOGUARD®
addressing struvite and nutrient management needs!
Call 1-800-227-4287 today for details.

Filtered Alkalinity Testing May Provide the Answer You Need to Dramatically Improve Plant Performance

Is it worth switching to Filtered Alkalinity Testing instead of standard, Non-Filtered Alkalinity testing methods? It’s certainly worth careful consideration, and here’s why:

  • Filtered Alkalinity Testing is likely to provide results that are more representative of your aqueous system’s true buffering capacity, when compared with Non-Filtered testing.
  • Unfiltered testing, when using lime or caustic, may cause plant operators to errantly believe there is sufficient soluble alkalinity, or true pH buffering capacity, in their aqueous system. This is because the standard unfiltered testing will “count” the insoluble particulate created by the use of caustic or lime in the test results.
  • Inaccurate information from unfiltered tests can lead plant operators to add insufficient lime or caustic initially, only to require the addition of more product to accomplish the desired result. This is inefficient, creates larger amounts of sludge, and can increase operation and transportation costs.

When you add Lime or Caustic to your basins, it’s likely you are creating detrimental “Hot Zones” which have the double negative effect of:


Standard non-filtered testing methods do not accurately reflect actual buffering capacity. An operational pH of 4.0, simply doesn’t exist in any real life situation at a typical treatment plant. Plants are frequently operating at a pH of 6.5 – 7.5. Adjusting the “final testing pH” to a more realistic 6.0 when measuring alkalinity, may allow plant operators to get a better idea of buffering capacity, but it is still a questionable approximation.

When you are accurately assessing your system’s true buffering capacity, through Filtered Alkalinity testing, you may discover it makes a great deal of sense to consider your options. Consider THIOGUARD


When you use THIOGUARD® as an additive in your wastewater treatment plant, you will maintain a narrower operational pH range, with higher buffering capacity – even over extended periods of time and variable influent conditions. Technical grade magnesium hydroxide delivers double the Alkalinity per Gallon when compared to Caustic Soda, and triple the Alkalinity per Gallon when compared to Lime Slurry, resulting in greater operational efficiency.


Benefits outlined in this table require THIOGUARD®’s superior technical grade magnesium hydroxide combined with the THIOGUARD® Advantage Package of consulting, performance testing, inventory control and delivery services.

Odors | Corrosion | FOG (Fats, Oil, Grease) | Air Relief

Comments: Customers can “dial in” the desired level of treatment. Best acid neutralization prevents premature infrastructure corrosion & replacement, adds numerous benefits downstream. THIOGUARD® can reduce FOG related SSOs. THIOGUARD® can reduce pumping costs on long force mains.

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) | TSS (Total Suspended Solids)
NH3 (Ammonia) | Phosphorus | FOG

Comments: THIOGUARD® is the only liquid phase treatment used in the collection system that can enhance the treatment process at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Digestion | CH4 Methane Production | Enhanced Dewatering

Comments: THIOGUARD® added to the collection system or sludge digestion process can also help the digestion and dewatering processes at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Phosphorus-Removal | Nitrogen-Removal

Comments: THIOGUARD® added at the plant or collection system is the only odor control strategy that can have positive influence on a BNR process.

Ask me how the NEW Thioguard Omega-S program can help you take
advantage of THIOGUARD®  addressing struvite and nutrient management needs!
Call 1-800-227-4287 today for details.


Addressing odor problems is a pressing concern in the WWT industry. One of those problems that has to be “fixed and fixed NOW!” Sometimes the first answer is installing a carbon, chemical, or biological scrubber. An alternative approach to the same problem is the addition of THIOGUARD®, which will offer superior odor reduction results, while at the same time delivering the most crucial cost saving benefit of all – system-wide corrosion prevention.

Infrastructure Corrosion is undoubtedly the most significant problem facing today’s plant operators and engineers. The EPA puts the funds required for infrastructure repair and replacement at $271 Billion.

So, when you are faced with an odor problem, and you are considering adding a scrubber to your lines, you may want to ask yourself this question – Will adding an expensive scrubber help prevent corrosion and maintain and extend the engineered life of my infrastructure?

Carbon, chemical, or biological scrubbers are not designed to prevent corrosion. Scrubbers, by design, draw air through your lines, potentially pulling more H2S out of solution, and contributing to corrosion – specifically in crown and manhole infrastructure.

® added to your system, generally through a single feed unit, suppresses H2S system-wide, eliminating your odor problem, in many cases reducing total gases released from the wastewater stream. The benefits to your infrastructure and your plant are immediate and lasting. Through a single application point, you are effectively maintaining and extending the engineered life of your existing infrastructure. Other downstream benefits include a reduction in the production of sludge, and enhanced clarification and dewatering.

Where scrubbers are currently in use, THIOGUARD® , added upstream, will greatly reduce the overall load, thereby reducing operating costs and increasing the lifespan of existing equipment and structures.


By reducing the acidity in your system, you’ll reduce corrosion dramatically, in some cases by as much as 100X, when compared to other treatments. THIOGUARD® is typically added through a single Feed Unit, and provides “corrosion-controlling” benefits throughout your system, from collection system source to treatment plant discharge.

Corrosion is an incredibly COSTLY problem facing
America’s Water System Infrastructure.

THIOGUARD® is a proven solution to maintaining & extending the life of our nation’s water Infrastructure while providing multiple benefits downstream.

For more information CALL 1.800.227.4287
or email