Multiple Benefits to Your Process,Multiple Benefits Downstream

With the THIOGUARD® Advantage Package, it’s your process Mg+nified!(TM)

Benefits outlined in this table require Thioguard’s superior technical grade magnesium hydroxide combined with the Thioguard Advantage Package of consulting, performance testing, inventory control and delivery services.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN YOUR COLLECTION SYSTEM

Odors | Corrosion | FOG (Fats, Oil, Grease) | Air Relief

Comments: Customers can “dial in” the desired level of treatment. Best acid neutralization prevents premature infrastructure corrosion & replacement, adds numerous benefits downstream. Thioguard can reduce FOG related SSOs. Thioguard can reduce pumping costs on long force mains.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) | TSS (Total Suspended Solids)
NH3 (Ammonia) | Phosphorus | FOG

Comments: Thioguard is the only liquid phase treatment used in the collection system that can enhance the treatment process at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN BIOSOLIDS TREATMENT

Digestion | CH4 Methane Production Enhanced DewateringComments: Thioguard added to the collection system or sludge digestion process can also help the digestion and dewatering processes at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

THIOGUARD BENEFITS IN NUTRIENT REMOVAL/MODIFICATION

Comments: Thioguard added to the collection system or sludge digestion process can also help the digestion and dewatering processes at the Wastewater Treatment Plant.

There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close

My oldest son’s basketball tryouts are looming this week. He cares deeply about making the team and asked me what he should do to prepare. I suggested he sleep and eat well before the tryouts, which may not have been the novel or life-changing answer he was seeking. I gather he was hoping for a magic bullet, something that would make his muscles strong and flexible, deliver him energy, render him well rested, and keep stress at bay.

Now that I think of it, buddy, there just may be a magic mineral that does all of these things. Magnesium helps with energy, muscle strength, flexibility, sleep and stress management — everything you need.

Basketball tryouts are no joke. They involve hours of running, pivoting, head-to-toe muscle use and quick reflexes. Magnesium contributes to flexibility and helps to prevent injury by loosening tight muscles. Without enough magnesium, muscles can’t properly relax, possibly causing cramps. Low magnesium can create a buildup of lactic acid, known to cause post-workout pain and tightness. Also, much of the body’s energy comes from ATP, a molecule that captures chemical energy from food and uses it to fuel other processes in the body. ATP production depends on magnesium.

Magnesium obviously won’t build my son’s arm muscles in time for tryouts, but it does help the body produce more insulin-like growth factor, an essential part of long-term muscle growth and strength.

Magnesium helps to balance and control stress hormones. Specifically, magnesium is essential for the production of serotonin, which is responsible for relaxing the nervous system and lifting moods. Serotonin also contributes to healthy sleep. A lack of magnesium upends sleep not only because of its role in serotonin production but also because it topples the sleep regulating hormone melatonin.

Magnesium is one of the essential electrolytes needed for efficient hydration. Sorry to disappoint you kids that were hoping I’d recommend a Gatorade for your tryouts; instead, you need to eat real magnesium and potassium-rich foods, and drink lots of water. A few magnesium stars include leafy green vegetables, pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, almonds, cashews, pecans, walnuts, brown rice, avocado, beans, raw cacao, edamame and seaweed.

A winning smile won’t command my son a spot on the basketball team, but perhaps it will reveal him as a positive, eager player. Low magnesium leaves saliva with excess calcium and phosphorous, which can damage teeth and harm that winning smile.

Magnesium also builds strong bones, maintains heart health, helps to prevent diabetes by regulating blood sugar, prevents inflammation and strokes, boosts immunity, preserves a proper pH balance in the body, and relieves constipation. Phew. Magnesium might really be that magic bullet as it performs an essential role in every almost bodily function.

In fact, in the emergency room, magnesium is considered a critical medication for emergency heart, asthma, pregnancy preeclampsia and other life-threatening conditions because it has a relaxing effect and is found in every tissue.

Modern life conspires to steal our magnesium. Caffeine, phosphoric acid in soda, too much salt, extreme sweating, alcohol, prolonged stress, antibiotics and other medications drain our bodies of the much-needed mineral.

So how can a teenage boy, trying out for a basketball team, or not, obtain the recommended daily intake of 410 mg of magnesium? He can eat meals such as oatmeal for breakfast; a brown rice, black bean and avocado burrito for lunch; a banana with almond butter as a snack; and roasted chicken, sesame noodles and a spinach salad for dinner. One of the most relaxing ways to absorb magnesium is to take a bath with magnesium or Epsom salts. Our skin is our largest organ for ingestion into the blood system so magnesium baths can both relax us and contribute to our magnesium intake.

Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year.

Harness the Versatility of Magnesium Hydroxide

Improves Odor Control, Reduces F.O.G. & Eliminates
Caustic Usage for Significant Cost SavingsLake

THIOGUARD® is a safe, industrial-strength milk of magnesia that adds alkalinity and raises pH levels at your treatment plant. In current applications, the addition of Thioguard delivers measurable benefits in three powerful ways:

1. INCREASES ALKALINITY/ELIMINATES CAUSTIC
Thioguard increases alkalinity for nitrogen removal. Every gallon of Thioguard dosed results in nearly two gallons of 50% caustic reduced, resulting in significant cost savings and a safer workplace.

2. ENHANCES GREASE CONTROL

Enhances Grease Control

3. IMPROVES ODOR CONTROL BY 95% WHEN COMPARED
TO 
CALCIUM NITRATE
Thioguard controls odors continuously by maintaining appropriate alkalinity and prevents daily “spiking,” which typically requires additional treatment locations. Nitrates only control odor with increased/residual nitrogen loading to the WRF. In addition, Thioguard is the ONLY commonly used technology that has a direct mechanism to prevent corrosion.

Enhance Phosphate Treatment with THIOGUARD®

In plants currently using metal salts, the addition of
THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide can
REDUCE METAL SALT USAGE BY UP TO 50%

Increased regulation of total phosphorus limits are a fact of life, and another challenge for WWT plant operators and engineers. In most treatment plants, metal salts (ferrous/ferric or aluminum) are added for the treatment of phosphates.

Adding THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide will:

  • Minimize or eliminate the addition of metal salts
  • Enhance biological phosphorus uptake in bioreactors
  • Reduce the amount of metal-laden sludge
  • Increase agricultural phosphate recovery
  • Reduce dewatering, handling and transportation costs
  • Eliminate the need for expensive plant upgrades

THIOGUARD® is specifically formulated for maximum alkalinity
and magnesium utilization in biological processes, enhancing the
performance of metal salts in removing phosphates chemically –
while simultaneously improving biological uptake in bioreactors.

 

THIOGUARD® improves plant performance
Improved plant performance =
Significant Savings

Thioguard is engineered to provide maximum magnesium hydroxide and sustained alkaline utilization, enhancing the formation of metal hydroxide precipitate and increasing the adsorption of soluble phosphorus.

The benefits of adding THIOGUARD® to your treatment processes are not limited to enhanced phosphorus treatment and management. In addition, THIOGUARD® is the ONLY commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to prevent corrosion through sustainable and balanced pH levels. You will also benefit from a reduction in the formation of metal-laden sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD® the practical choice for your entire system.

The Solution to Your F.O.G. Problem is THIOGUARD®

The accumulation of fats, oils, and grease can be dramatically reduced through the use of THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide. THIOGUARD® is a strong base, and a moderate pH adjuster, which adds non-carbonate alkalinity to the wastewater. As pH increases, fats, oils, and grease become more soluble. The practical effect on municipal wastewater systems is a rapid, dramatic reduction in fat, oils, and grease buildup within the collection, transport and treatment structures.

 THIOGUARD® does NOT transfer F.O.G. problems “downstream,”
only to reappear in your plant.

THIOGUARD® eliminates the problem, by improving the immediate environment, allowing “good bacteria” to perform their function. By the time the wastewater reaches your reclamation facility, the majority of the F.O.G. has been either consumed or reduced to simpler organics.

The addition of THIOGUARD® boosts pH levels, THROUGHOUT your system, PREVENTING the conditions that encourage the deposition of grease, which can clog lines, and accumulate on the surface of pump stations and your treatment plant. With improved pH, solubility is increased significantly, by a factor of 10x in some cases. THIOGUARD® is typically added through a single Feed Unit, and provides multiple benefits throughout your system, from source to discharge.

THIOGUARD® provides the greatest power to neutralize acid over long infrastructure distances, while providing additional benefits to your waste water treatment plant’s biological treatment processes. The chart below compares alkalinity per gallon, illustrating the superiority of THIOGUARD® against other commonly used treatment options.

THIOGUARD® Cuts through F.O.G. and Delivers
Multiple System-Wide Benefits

The benefits of adding THIOGUARD® to your treatment processes are not limited to the prevention or reduction of F.O.G., through sustainable and balanced pH levels. THIOGUARD® also prevents corrosion and dramatically reduces the formation of sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD® the best and most practical choice for your system.

Water Environment Federation Selects THIOGUARD’s Mary Evans as a 2018 Fellow For Contributions to the Water Profession

Mary EvansThe Water Environment Federation (WEF) recently announced Thioguard’s Mary Evans, among 15 distinguished members as a 2018 WEF Fellow recipient. This prestigious designation recognizes members’ achievements, stature, and contributions in the water profession. “The impressive accomplishments of this year’s WEF Fellows have made a profound impact in the water profession,” said WEF Executive Director Eileen O’Neill. “We are honored to recognize their efforts to preserve and enhance the global water environment.” The WEF Fellows Recognition Program underscores WEF’s role as a valuable water quality resource, which is due in large part to the expertise of its diverse membership.

WEF Fellows are recognized in various areas of expertise including, but not limited to, design, education, operations, regulation, research, utility management and leadership. Mary Evans is a highly regarded member of the Water Environment Association of Texas and WEF, serving in a number of volunteer, committee and leadership capacities over a 40+ year water professional career. The 2018 WEF Fellows will be recognized during WEFTEC® 2018, WEF’s 91st annual technical exhibition and conference, September 29 to October 3 in New Orleans. For more information, visit http://www.wef.org/weffellowsprogram.

Water Environment Federation

About WEF The Water Environment Federation (WEF) is a not-for-profit technical and educational organization of 34,000 individual members and 75 affiliated Member Associations representing water quality professionals around the world. Since 1928, WEF and its members have protected public health and the environment. As a global water sector leader, its mission is to connect water professionals; enrich the expertise of water professionals; increase the awareness of the impact and value of water; and provide a platform for water sector innovation.

Thioguard

THIOGUARD® is a leading supplier of technical grade magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide to the wastewater treatment industry. Thioguard’s Total System Treatment is a non-hazardous application with no required reportable quantities, and is owned, mined and produced in the USA. Thioguard provides more alkalinity than any other additive, it is effective at treating odors, corrosion and FOG (fats, oils and grease), and also provides positive plant benefits for nitrification, biosolids production, digester performance, and chlorination. Thioguard is a division of Premier Magnesia, LLC. For more information, visit http://www.thioguard.com.

Thioguard® is Superior to Lime Slurry and Caustic Soda

ONE OF THE MOST COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS IS:
“IF I”M USING X GALLONS OF LIME SLURRY OR CAUSTIC SODA,
HOW MUCH THIOGUARD® DO I NEED?

SOUNDS LIKE A SIMPLE QUESTION, RIGHT?

On the surface, it’s easy to do the theoretical calculations and provide exact alkaline equivalents. However, field and trial experience tells us something different. The amount of high grade Thioguard® – magnesium hydroxide required to achieve equivalent buffering/performance benefits in the biological reactors tends to be much lower than the calculations would suggest. Why?

Often overlooked are some of the side impacts of lime use, such as softening and pH spikes, and confusion about what standard total alkalinity tests are telling us. An easy way to find out the extent of softening that is taking place in your facility, is to filter your sample with a 0.45 micron filter before titration. This will remove the insoluble CaCO3 particles that are not “biologically available.” Another significant, yet overlooked impact is the EPA documented sludge production typically associated with lime.

EPA – wastewater technology fact sheet – chemical precipitation: “the addition of treatment chemicals, especially lime, may increase volume of waste sludge up to 50%.”

LIME SOFTENING

Lime is commonly used in potable water to “soften,” or remove hardness minerals, such as calcium and magnesium from drinking water, in an effort to minimize the effects of potential scaling in the water distribution system. However, in the softening process, calcium and magnesium are removed from water in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) which are also forms of alkalinity. Removing hardness from water also removes alkalinity.

Lime SofteningIn wastewater, lime is often considered as an alkalinity supplement. However, the effects of lime softening can have undesirable consequences to the biological system, e.g., removal of alkalinity, creation of CaCO3 sludge, and the potential for bio-upsetting pH spikes.

Hot Zones Temperate ZonesThe simple fact: Thioguard® and lime slurry have different physical and chemical properties that affect how each responds to and reacts with the systems to which they are added. And because of these differences in properties, the impacts they impart and the utility for their use are starkly different.

 DID YOU KNOW…

  • Because of the high solubility of both caustic soda and lime, pH often becomes
    biologically prohibitive before ideal alkalinity levels and process stability can
    be reached.
  • The use of lime in, or prior to, primary treatment can actually reduce alkalinity going into the secondary treatment processes by precipitating CaCO3 in the primary clarifiers
  • Lime produces calcium carbonate in wastewater which acts as a coagulant for hardness and particulate matter.
  • Lime is an effective phosphate removal agent, but results in a large sludge volume and the addition of treatment chemicals, especially lime, may increase the volume of waste sludge up to 50 percent.

Hydrated Lime added in collection systems increases O&M costs
related to formation of scale and accumulated solids/sludge.
In severe cases this leads to line blockages and SSO’s

The use of lime generates significant amounts of sludge in wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. On a chemical basis, one ton of lime can generate as much as 5 tons of 20% sludge cake to remove or dispose. In contrast, Thioguard® reactions in wastewater produce only water and water-soluble products as TDS with NO added sludge. In fact, customers using Thioguard® have reported reductions of 15%-25% in total solids/sludge produced, due to a combination of improved biological performance, divalent cation bridging of floc matrix, and reduced inorganic solids loading.
WHEN COMPARED TO CAUSTIC SODA OR LIME SLURRY
THIOGUARD® IS SUPERIOR

Most wastewater treatment plant operators understand that their wastewater treatment plants function best at some ideal pH and that a minimum amount of alkalinity is required to keep microorganisms happy. But too often, the values of pH and alkalinity are incorrectly used interchangeably, and a thorough understanding of each parameter’s true relationship to biological stability and optimal performance – gets lost in the translation.

Most often this error in terminology stems from the use of the most common alkaline pH modifiers and alkalinity supplements, caustic soda and lime, where their use may successfully meet pH demands, but will likely fall short in supplying adequate alkalinity requirements without adversely elevating pH beyond biologically healthy limits. And often, maintaining pH stability and uniformity across entire treatment basins remains a virtual impossibility.

Compared to caustic soda or lime, Thioguard® is capable of supplying significantly more alkalinity in a bio-available form to a microbial wastewater system without adversely affecting pH. This creates a more suitable environment for bioremediation of BOD and nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. Moreover, because magnesium supplies a light-weight, divalent cation, unlike the monovalent sodium in caustic, and heavier calcium in lime, Thioguard® helps to generate a denser, more easily dewatered sludge, with a higher percentage of cake solids.

Lb.s Alkalinity Per Gallon

DID YOU KNOW…

  • It takes 100+ mg/L of Thioguard® to raise a water sample to pH 8.8.
  • This same 100 mg/L of Thioguard® has the same neutralizing power as 138 mg/L of caustic soda and 135 mg/L of lime and would be the equivalent of, though significantly more reactive than, adding 172 mg/ L calcium carbonate alkalinity on a CaCO3 basis, assuming 100% bicarbonate conversion.

Thioguard Reactor systems treated to an initial pH of 8.5 using Thioguard, caustic soda and lime.Equivalent amounts of acid added to each over time.

NOW THAT’S POWER!

THIOGUARD® Outperforms Nitrates from Collection System to Effluent

Calcium Nitrate products are commonly used in many of the nation’s wastewater collection systems, and they do essentially one thing – they treat odors from H2S. Unfortunately, there are multiple costly and problematic unintended consequences of the use of nitrate products. In addition, while nitrate use may temporarily address H2S odor problems, nitrate products are of little or no use in combating corrosion, which is a tremendous problem both in-plant and throughout every segment of wastewater treatment infrastructure.

NITRATE USE ENCOURAGES UNWANTED BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS…
where you don’t want them to occur.
Think denitrification…which consumes organics, and produces nitrogen gas N2 and carbon dioxide CO2, all seemingly innocuous by-products of Calcium Nitrate’s intended use as an odor control technology…but let’s take a closer look…

1. Nitrates contribute to the formation of F.O.G.
The addition of nitrates contributes to the accumulation of an odorous film, often referred to as a F.O.G. (Fats, Oils and Grease) mat in pumping stations and at your plant. Blockages associated with F.O.G. have been shown to be the greatest contributors to O&M costs including energy consumption, maintenance costs, and Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs).

2. Nitrates contribute to Gas Binding in the Collection System
The transfer of wastewater can result in the release of gases such as O2 – Oxygen, CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, N2 – Nitrogen Gas, H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide, CH4 – Methane, VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds, and VOSCs – Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds, among others. Some of these gases are drawn into the system through pumping and ventilation, while others are generated within the system either chemically or biologically. These gases can result in the development of gas binding in the system, and are dramatically exacerbated with the utilization of calcium nitrate.

 

3. Nitrates upset the Bio-P process at your plant
The use of nitrates in the collection system alter the chemical and biological conditions of the collection system, which would otherwise facilitate the formation and transport of VFAs to the treatment plant, where they can be used by PAOs in Bio-P processes.

As VFAs (Volatile Fatty Acids) are eliminated with calcium nitrate addition, VFAs are therefore not available for PAOs (phosphorus accumulating organisms) for phosphate removal at the wastewater treatment plant.

4. Nitrates negatively impact Primary and Secondary Clarification
The addition of nitrates is not an exact science, and unfortunately, every step along the way there are costly unintended consequences. Add too little, and you’re facing odor problems. Add too much, and you’re faced with the formation of unwanted bubble-forming gases (N2 and CO2 from denitrification) in your settling tank, exactly where you DON’T WANT IT, continuing the formation of F.O.G. mat, (as well as creating an environment unfavorable to your biological processes). This often results in increased metal salts usage or increased polymer usage and associated increases in costs.

NITRATE ADDITION REQUIRES MULTIPLE FEED LOCATIONS,
THIOGUARD ONLY REQUIRES ONE
Calcium Nitrate has a short half-life in sewers, and therefore many addition locations are required to achieve adequate system-wide control. This requires several addition locations, and corresponding higher costs and operational oversight. In contrast, a single THIOGUARD Feed Unit can often replace several nitrate feed stations, and maintain a relatively constant pH level throughout.

THIOGUARD HELPS PREVENT CORROSION
Maintaining a constant surface pH of 6-8 can reduce the rate of corrosion by as much as 100X. The cost of simply ignoring this problem is monumental and THIOGUARD is the only commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to increase surface pH and prevent corrosion.

CHOOSING THIOGUARD OVER CALCIUM NITRATE WILL: 

  • Decrease maintenance costs
  • Decrease operating power costs
  • Decrease F.O.G. related SSOs and ARV malfunction
  • Improve efficiency due to reduced discharge pressure in manifolded force mains
  • Improve Biosolids
  • Save money and improve plant performance ACROSS THE BOARD!

Nurturing the Brain with Magnesium


Magnesium is everywhere – it does not occur free in nature, only in combination with other elements, but it is the eighth most abundant chemical element in the Earth’s crust and the third most abundant element in seawater; it is even the ninth most abundant in the Milky Way. In the human body, magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion and the eleventh most abundant element by mass, being stored in bones, muscles, and soft tissues.

Magnesium is fundamental for health: it is essential to all cells and to the function of hundreds of enzymes, including enzymes that synthesize DNA and RNA, and enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism, many of which are vital. Magnesium is involved in virtually every major metabolic and biochemical process in our cells and it plays a critical role in the physiology of basically every single organ.

Low plasma levels of magnesium are common and are mostly due to poor dietary intake, which has lowered significantly in the last decades. Magnesium can be found in high quantities in foods containing dietary fiber, including green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. But although magnesium is widely distributed in vegetable and animal foods, some types of food processing can lower magnesium content up to 90%. Also, the soil used for conventional agriculture is becoming increasingly deprived of essential minerals. In the last 60 years, the magnesium content in fruit and vegetables has decreased by around 20 to 30%.

Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in healthy people is not very frequent, but a consistently poor dietary supply of magnesium has insidious effects. Magnesium deficiency alters biochemical pathways and increases the risk of a wide range of diseases over time, namely hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches, for example.

In the brain, magnesium is an important regulator of neurotransmitter signaling, particularly glutamate and GABA, the main neurotransmitters by modulating the activation of NMDA glutamate receptors and GABAA receptors. It also contributes to the maintenance of adequate calcium levels in the cell through the regulation of calcium channels’ activity.

These physiological roles make magnesium an essential element in important neuronal processes. Magnesium participates in the mechanisms of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity, and consequently, learning and memory. Accordingly, increased levels of magnesium in the brain have been shown to promote multiple mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that enhance different forms of learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. Increased levels of magnesium in the brain have also been linked to an increased proliferation of neural stem cells, indicating that it may promote the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis) in adulthood. This is an important feature because neurogenesis is a key mechanism in the brain’s structural and functional adaptability, in cognitive flexibility, and in mood regulation.

Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to modulate the neuroendocrine system and to improve sleep quality by promoting slow wave (deep) sleep, which, among many other functions, is also important for cognition and memory consolidation.

Furthermore, magnesium may enhance the beneficial effects of exercise in the brain, since it has been shown to increase the availability of glucose in the blood, muscle, and brain, and diminish the accumulation of lactate in the blood and muscles during exercise.

But just as increasing magnesium levels can be beneficial, magnesium deficiency can have serious harmful effects.

Magnesium has important roles in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes and modulation of brain blood flow. In circumstances of magnesium deficiency, all of these functions can potentially be dysregulated, laying ground for neurological disorders. Also, in a context of low magnesium availability in the brain, NMDA glutamate receptors, which are excitatory, may become excessively activated, and GABAA receptors, which are inhibitory, may become insufficiently activated; this can lead to neuronal hyperactivity and to a condition known as glutamate excitotoxicity. This causes an excessive accumulation of calcium in neurons, which in turn leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and, ultimately, to neuronal cell death.

Magnesium deficiency has been associated with several neurological and psychiatric diseases, including migraine, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Magnesium supplementation has shown beneficial effects on many of these conditions, as well as in post-stroke, post-traumatic brain injury, and post-spinal cord injury therapies. This therapeutic action is likely due to its action in blocking NMDA glutamate receptors and decreasing excitotoxicity, in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and in increasing blood flow to the brain, all of which are determinant in the outcome of these conditions.

There are multiple benefits to be obtained from magnesium, both from a health promotion, and from a disease prevention and management perspective. The recommended daily intake of magnesium is of 320mg for females and 420mg for males. Too much magnesium from food sources has no associated health risks in healthy individuals because the kidneys readily eliminate the excess. However, there is a recommended upper intake level for supplemental magnesium, since it can cause gastrointestinal side effects. So, keep it below 350mg/day.

 

Magnesium, Hard Water, and Health

The risk relationship between hard water and reduced cardiovascular disease is well known, but it’s the magnesium portion of the hardness that accounts for most of the beneficial effect. Magnesium is important in hundreds of biochemical processes, and adult daily requirements are approximately 300-350 mg/day. Most Americans consume less than the optimal daily amount of magnesium recommended for good health. Although diet is the major source of magnesium, drinking water can be an important contributor, and the uptake of magnesium from drinking water is more efficient than from most dietary components except milk/dairy. Dairy intake tends to decline with age, so even a small (~10 mg/L) consistent lifetime contribution from water can be an important supplement as we age. Bottled waters and naturally soft and softened waters tend to have little or no magnesium.

WATER AND MAGNESIUM CONSUMPTION

Approximately half of the US population has been shown to consume less than the daily requirement of magnesium from foods (USDA & HHS 2015). The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee considered magnesium to be a shortfall nutrient that was under-consumed relative to the estimated average requirement (EAR) for many Americans. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesemia manifest in numerous disorders and diseases. Although diet is the primary source of intake, drinking water can be a lifetime contributor of supplemental magnesium to one’s total daily intake depending on the source water composition and the treatment it has received.

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