Are you Magnesium Deficient?

Magnesium is arguably the most important mineral in the body, which is why magnesium deficiency can be such an issue.

According to Norman Shealy, MD, Ph.D, an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer in pain medicine, “Every known illness is associated with a magnesium deficiency and it’s the missing cure to many diseases.” Not only does magnesium help regulate calcium, potassium and sodium, but it’s essential for cellular health and a critical component of over 300 biochemical functions in the body.

Phosphorus Reduction

Presence of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater effluents and their impacts on natural water bodies are of major concern. With the recent evidence that anthropogenic phosphorus (not nitrogen) addition in micrograms per liter level can trigger algal growth, phosphorus removal to lowest level has become increasingly important.

CONCLUSIONS: THIOGUARD IMPROVES BIO-P

With 50% improvements in alkalinity and 64% improvements in Phosphorus uptake, the total sustained health of the biomass is improved and ultimately over time continued to maintain stable removal of phosphorus. Read More

Thioguard is Superior to Lime Slurry and Caustic Soda

 POUND FOR POUND, THE BEST CHOICE

On the surface, it’s easy to do the theoretical calculations and provide exact alkaline equivalents. However, field and trial experience tells us something different. The amount of high grade Thioguard – magnesium hydroxide required to achieve equivalent buffering/performance benefits in the biological reactors tends to be much lower than the calculations would suggest. Why?

Often overlooked are some of the side impacts of lime use, such as softening and pH spikes, and confusion about what standard total alkalinity tests are telling us. An easy way to find out the extent of softening that is taking place in your facility, is to filter your sample with a 0.45 micron filter before titration. This will remove the insoluble CaCO3 particles that are not “biologically available.” Another significant, yet overlooked impact is the EPA documented sludge production typically associated with lime.

EPA – wastewater technology fact sheet – chemical precipitation: “the addition of treatment chemicals, especially lime, may increase volume of waste sludge up to 50%.”

 LIME SOFTENING = ALKALINITY REMOVAL

Lime is commonly used in potable water to “soften,” or remove hardness minerals, such as calcium and magnesium from drinking water, in an effort to minimize the effects of potential scaling in the water distribution system. However, in the softening process, calcium and magnesium are removed from water in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) which are also forms of alkalinity. Removing hardness from water also removes alkalinity.

Lime SofteningIn wastewater, lime is often considered as an alkalinity supplement. However, the effects of lime softening can have undesirable consequences to the biological system, e.g., removal of alkalinity, creation of CaCO3 sludge, and the potential for bio-upsetting pH spikes.

Hot Zones Temperate ZonesThe simple fact: Thioguard and lime slurry have different physical and chemical properties that affect how each responds to and reacts with the systems to which they are added. And because of these differences in properties, the impacts they impart and the utility for their use are starkly different.

 DID YOU KNOW…

  • Because of the high solubility of both caustic soda and lime, pH often becomes biologically prohibitive before ideal alkalinity levels and process stability can be reached.
  • The use of lime in, or prior to, primary treatment can actually reduce alkalinity going into the secondary treatment processes by precipitating CaCO3 in the primary clarifiers, or by converting bio-available soluble alkalinity into insoluble alkalinity in the biological reactors

Hydrated Lime added in collection systems increases O&M costs
related to formation of scale and accumulated solids/sludge.
In severe cases this leads to line blockages and SSO’s

The use of lime generates significant amounts of sludge in wastewater collection systems and treatment plants. On a chemical basis, one ton of lime can generate as much as 5 tons of 20% sludge cake to remove or dispose. In contrast, Thioguard reactions in wastewater produce only water and water-soluble products as TDS with NO added sludge. In fact, customers using Thioguard have reported reductions of 15%-25% in total solids/sludge produced, due to a combination of improved biological performance, divalent cation bridging of floc matrix, and reduced inorganic solids loading.

Most wastewater treatment plant operators understand that their wastewater treatment plants function best at some ideal pH and that a minimum amount of alkalinity is required to keep microorganisms happy. But too often, the values of pH and alkalinity are incorrectly used interchangeably, and a thorough understanding of each parameter’s true relationship to biological stability and optimal performance – gets lost in the translation.

Most often this error in terminology stems from the use of the most common alkaline pH modifiers and alkalinity supplements, caustic soda and lime, where their use may successfully meet pH demands, but will likely fall short in supplying adequate alkalinity requirements without adversely elevating pH beyond biologically healthy limits. And often, maintaining pH stability and uniformity across entire treatment basins remains a virtual impossibility.

Compared to caustic soda or lime, Thioguard is capable of supplying significantly more alkalinity in a bio-available form to a microbial wastewater system without adversely affecting pH. This creates a more suitable environment for bioremediation of BOD and nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. Moreover, because magnesium supplies a light-weight, divalent cation, unlike the monovalent sodium in caustic, and heavier calcium in lime, Thioguard helps to generate a denser, more easily dewatered sludge, with a higher percentage of cake solids.

Lb.s Alkalinity Per Gallon

DID YOU KNOW…

  • It takes 100+ mg/L of Thioguard to raise a water sample to pH 8.8.
  • This same 100 mg/L of Thioguard has the same neutralizing power as 138 mg/L of caustic soda and 135 mg/L of lime and would be the equivalent of, though significantly more reactive than, adding 172 mg/ L calcium carbonate alkalinity on a CaCO3 basis, assuming 100% bicarbonate conversion.

Thioguard Reactor systems treated to an initial pH of 8.5 using Thioguard, caustic soda and lime.Equivalent amounts of acid added to each over time.

NOW THAT’S POWER!

Daily Dose with Dr. Oz: Magnesium

Dr. Oz Investigates…

Magnesium has been in the spotlight lately and getting a lot of attention from health experts. This mineral plays a role in the physiological functions of the brain, heart, and muscles. Researchers continue to study how it can help your health by improving sleep, fighting depression, and reducing the risk of disease. You may want to consider adding a magnesium supplement to your daily routine and eating foods that are rich in magnesium, like leafy greens and pumpkin seeds. As always, make sure to speak to your doctor before making any major health changes. Want to learn more about the benefits? Check out six of the most significant reasons to give magnesium a try.

Harness the Power of THIOGUARD® for OPTIMAL Treatment and Maximum Resource Recovery

Resource Recovery is currently a primary focus in the water treatment industry across the U.S. – a key objective for plant operators, executives and municipalities. Mg-Water, Premier Magnesia’s Water Utility Group, is an innovator in helping the nation’s water industry evolve and adapt. As America’s largest supplier of magnesia products,
Premier is also the water industry’s most trusted knowledge resource for magnesia and its central role in the evolving Resource Recovery Revolution.

THIOGUARD® Outperforms Nitrates from Collection System to Effluent

Calcium Nitrate products are commonly used in many of the nation’s wastewater collection systems, and they do essentially one thing – they treat odors from H2S. Unfortunately, there are multiple costly and problematic unintended consequences of the use of nitrate products. In addition, while nitrate use may temporarily address H2S odor problems, nitrate products are of little or no use in combating corrosion, which is a tremendous problem both in-plant and throughout every segment of wastewater treatment infrastructure.

NITRATE USE ENCOURAGES UNWANTED BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS…
where you don’t want them to occur.
Think denitrification…which consumes organics, and produces nitrogen gas N2 and carbon dioxide CO2, all seemingly innocuous by-products of Calcium Nitrate’s intended use as an odor control technology…but let’s take a closer look…

1. Nitrates contribute to the formation of F.O.G.
The addition of nitrates contributes to the accumulation of an odorous film, often referred to as a F.O.G. (Fats, Oils and Grease) mat in pumping stations and at your plant. Blockages associated with F.O.G. have been shown to be the greatest contributors to O&M costs including energy consumption, maintenance costs, and Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs).

2. Nitrates contribute to Gas Binding in the Collection System
The transfer of wastewater can result in the release of gases such as O2 – Oxygen, CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, N2 – Nitrogen Gas, H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide, CH4 – Methane, VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds, and VOSCs – Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds, among others. Some of these gases are drawn into the system through pumping and ventilation, while others are generated within the system either chemically or biologically. These gases can result in the development of gas binding in the system, and are dramatically exacerbated with the utilization of calcium nitrate.

3. Nitrates upset the Bio-P process at your plant
The use of nitrates in the collection system alter the chemical and biological conditions of the collection system, which would otherwise facilitate the formation and transport of VFAs to the treatment plant, where they can be used by PAOs in Bio-P processes.

As VFAs (Volatile Fatty Acids) are eliminated with calcium nitrate addition, VFAs are therefore not available for PAOs (phosphorus accumulating organisms) for phosphate removal at the wastewater treatment plant.

4. Nitrates negatively impact Primary and Secondary Clarification
The addition of nitrates is not an exact science, and unfortunately, every step along the way there are costly unintended consequences. Add too little, and you’re facing odor problems. Add too much, and you’re faced with the formation of unwanted bubble-forming gases (N2 and CO2 from denitrification) in your settling tank, exactly where you DON’T WANT IT, continuing the formation of F.O.G. mat, (as well as creating an environment unfavorable to your biological processes). This often results in increased metal salts usage or increased polymer usage and associated increases in costs.

NITRATE ADDITION REQUIRES MULTIPLE FEED LOCATIONS,
THIOGUARD ONLY REQUIRES ONE
Calcium Nitrate has a short half-life in sewers, and therefore many addition locations are required to achieve adequate system-wide control. This requires several addition locations, and corresponding higher costs and operational oversight. In contrast, a single THIOGUARD Feed Unit can often replace several nitrate feed stations, and maintain a relatively constant pH level throughout.

THIOGUARD HELPS PREVENT CORROSION
Maintaining a constant surface pH of 6-8 can reduce the rate of corrosion by as much as 100X. The cost of simply ignoring this problem is monumental and THIOGUARD is the only commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to increase surface pH and prevent corrosion.

CHOOSING THIOGUARD OVER CALCIUM NITRATE WILL: 

  • Decrease maintenance costs
  • Decrease operating power costs
  • Decrease F.O.G. related SSOs and ARV malfunction
  • Improve efficiency due to reduced discharge pressure in manifolded force mains
  • Improve Biosolids
  • Save money and improve plant performance ACROSS THE BOARD!

There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close

My oldest son’s basketball tryouts are looming this week. He cares deeply about making the team and asked me what he should do to prepare. I suggested he sleep and eat well before the tryouts, which may not have been the novel or life-changing answer he was seeking. I gather he was hoping for a magic bullet, something that would make his muscles strong and flexible, deliver him energy, render him well rested, and keep stress at bay.

Now that I think of it, buddy, there just may be a magic mineral that does all of these things. Magnesium helps with energy, muscle strength, flexibility, sleep and stress management — everything you need.

Basketball tryouts are no joke. They involve hours of running, pivoting, head-to-toe muscle use and quick reflexes. Magnesium contributes to flexibility and helps to prevent injury by loosening tight muscles. Without enough magnesium, muscles can’t properly relax, possibly causing cramps. Low magnesium can create a buildup of lactic acid, known to cause post-workout pain and tightness. Also, much of the body’s energy comes from ATP, a molecule that captures chemical energy from food and uses it to fuel other processes in the body. ATP production depends on magnesium.

Magnesium obviously won’t build my son’s arm muscles in time for tryouts, but it does help the body produce more insulin-like growth factor, an essential part of long-term muscle growth and strength.

Magnesium helps to balance and control stress hormones. Specifically, magnesium is essential for the production of serotonin, which is responsible for relaxing the nervous system and lifting moods. Serotonin also contributes to healthy sleep. A lack of magnesium upends sleep not only because of its role in serotonin production but also because it topples the sleep regulating hormone melatonin.

Magnesium is one of the essential electrolytes needed for efficient hydration. Sorry to disappoint you kids that were hoping I’d recommend a Gatorade for your tryouts; instead, you need to eat real magnesium and potassium-rich foods, and drink lots of water. A few magnesium stars include leafy green vegetables, pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, almonds, cashews, pecans, walnuts, brown rice, avocado, beans, raw cacao, edamame and seaweed.

A winning smile won’t command my son a spot on the basketball team, but perhaps it will reveal him as a positive, eager player. Low magnesium leaves saliva with excess calcium and phosphorous, which can damage teeth and harm that winning smile.

Magnesium also builds strong bones, maintains heart health, helps to prevent diabetes by regulating blood sugar, prevents inflammation and strokes, boosts immunity, preserves a proper pH balance in the body, and relieves constipation. Phew. Magnesium might really be that magic bullet as it performs an essential role in every almost bodily function.

In fact, in the emergency room, magnesium is considered a critical medication for emergency heart, asthma, pregnancy preeclampsia and other life-threatening conditions because it has a relaxing effect and is found in every tissue.

Modern life conspires to steal our magnesium. Caffeine, phosphoric acid in soda, too much salt, extreme sweating, alcohol, prolonged stress, antibiotics and other medications drain our bodies of the much-needed mineral.

So how can a teenage boy, trying out for a basketball team, or not, obtain the recommended daily intake of 410 mg of magnesium? He can eat meals such as oatmeal for breakfast; a brown rice, black bean and avocado burrito for lunch; a banana with almond butter as a snack; and roasted chicken, sesame noodles and a spinach salad for dinner. One of the most relaxing ways to absorb magnesium is to take a bath with magnesium or Epsom salts. Our skin is our largest organ for ingestion into the blood system so magnesium baths can both relax us and contribute to our magnesium intake.

Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year.

THIOGUARD Takes the Cake… and Makes it Better.

For a nearly one million gallon a day plant in Lambertville, NJ the good news just kept on coming. First, they started using Thioguard  to condition their primary sludge to reduce odors from the plant. This worked so well, they began to ask, “Where else can Thioguard be applied?”

As the winds whipped in early Spring, it was discovered that a significant amount of odor was coming from the nearly quarter million gallon sludge holding tank at their site. Since Thioguard worked to reduce the primary sludge odors, they wondered if it would work for stored sludge waiting to be pressed.

After establishing a stable pH range of 7.5-8.0 s.u., with just a couple of gallons a day, odors were reduced to satisfactory levels… and then something very interesting happened. Not only were odors in the press building reduced, but the press cake was drier. On average nearly 20-40% drier.

Why? Thioguard is technical grade magnesium hydroxide: a buffered source of alkalinity that is used to increase pH. Elevated pH promotes better polymer performance. Not only that, but due to divalent cation bridging, the press supernatant quality can be clearer as well. Any remaining alkalinity is then returned in the supernatant to the headworks of the plant.

The Lambertville results were recently verified on a much larger scale through bench testing at a treatment plant in Newark, Ohio. The chart below illustrates expected typical annual cost savings in hauling and tipping after the addition of Thioguard at a 100 MGD plant. The bottom line? For every 1% improvement in cake solids, the plant would save approximately $214K in hauling and tipping costs. In multiple tests, the use of Thioguard consistently resulted in 5% to 13% improvement in cake solids with greatly reduced water weight. Drier cake solids means less to haul, and fewer loads translates directly into operational savings.

Enhance Your Anaerobic Digestion Process to Save Money & Improve Performance

Historically, iron compounds have been added to anaerobic digesters for odor control. However, Iron is responsible for a multitude of unintended consequences in digesters. Premier Magnesia and Thioguard have been using magnesium hydroxide to improve operation of anaerobic digesters for over 30 years. Magnesium hydroxide is an alternative to iron that will actually improve the operation of the digester. The table below clearly illustrates the benefits and COST SAVINGS when magnesium hydroxide is substituted for iron in anaerobic digesters.

If the owner or operator is concerned with struvite formation, THIOGUARD has a model to predict struvite formation potential and has a proven solution that will prevent struvite formation, if predicted by the model. THIOGUARD ΩMEGA-S actually prevents struvite formation. Do not let unwarranted concerns over possible struvite formation prevent your utility from reaping the benefits of magnesium hydroxide in your anaerobic digesters.

Preserving and Maintaining Assets:

When Implementing Asset Management/Infrastructure Planning, consider
THIOGUARD to ensure future integrity and reliability to critical infrastructure
while enhancing operating efficiencies & costs.

Asset Management Example: Save 50% a year in 
pump stations power costs by choosing THIOGUARD

THIOGUARD is the ONLY commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to PREVENT CORROSION. The benefits of adding THIOGUARD to your treatment processes are not limited to the prevention or reduction of corrosion. You will also benefit from a reduction in the formation of sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD the Practical Choice for your system.

Measured surface pH can then be used to correlate corrosion rate
and subsequently, remaining years of useful life of concrete structure.

  

FORCE MAIN GAS BINDING   

PROBLEM STATEMENT: Pumping and conveying of wastewater from end user through the collection system to wastewater treatment plants can result in negative conditions including gas binding, blockages associated with fats, oils and greases (FOG), and system corrosion. There may be other contributing conditions, but these factors appear to be the greatest contributors to O&M costs including energy consumption, maintenance costs, and Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs).

FORCE MAIN GAS BINDING DRAMATICALLY INCREASED
WITH CALCIUM NITRATE (CaNO3) ADDITION

Save up to 50% per year in pump station power costs by choosing THIOGUARD®
as your odor, FOG and corrosion control process in your collection system.

Solution:

THIOGUARD can overcome these issues by reducing or eliminating gas emissions from wastewater, dissolving FOG blankets and reducing corrosion to pumps and infrastructure. No other product can match Thioguard’s ability to neutralize both collection system surface acid and wastewater acid over short and long distances to and through the wastewater treatment plant.

Force Main With THIOGUARD Treatment

Force Main with No Liquid Phase Treatment