THIOGUARD® Outperforms Nitrates from Collection System to Effluent

Calcium Nitrate products are commonly used in many of the nation’s wastewater collection systems, and they do essentially one thing – they treat odors from H2S. Unfortunately, there are multiple costly and problematic unintended consequences of the use of nitrate products. In addition, while nitrate use may temporarily address H2S odor problems, nitrate products are of little or no use in combating corrosion, which is a tremendous problem both in-plant and throughout every segment of wastewater treatment infrastructure.

where you don’t want them to occur.
Think denitrification…which consumes organics, and produces nitrogen gas N2 and carbon dioxide CO2, all seemingly innocuous by-products of Calcium Nitrate’s intended use as an odor control technology…but let’s take a closer look…

1. Nitrates contribute to the formation of F.O.G.
The addition of nitrates contributes to the accumulation of an odorous film, often referred to as a F.O.G. (Fats, Oils and Grease) mat in pumping stations and at your plant. Blockages associated with F.O.G. have been shown to be the greatest contributors to O&M costs including energy consumption, maintenance costs, and Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs).

2. Nitrates contribute to Gas Binding in the Collection System
The transfer of wastewater can result in the release of gases such as O2 – Oxygen, CO2 – Carbon Dioxide, N2 – Nitrogen Gas, H2S – Hydrogen Sulfide, CH4 – Methane, VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds, and VOSCs – Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds, among others. Some of these gases are drawn into the system through pumping and ventilation, while others are generated within the system either chemically or biologically. These gases can result in the development of gas binding in the system, and are dramatically exacerbated with the utilization of calcium nitrate.

3. Nitrates upset the Bio-P process at your plant
The use of nitrates in the collection system alter the chemical and biological conditions of the collection system, which would otherwise facilitate the formation and transport of VFAs to the treatment plant, where they can be used by PAOs in Bio-P processes.

As VFAs (Volatile Fatty Acids) are eliminated with calcium nitrate addition, VFAs are therefore not available for PAOs (phosphorus accumulating organisms) for phosphate removal at the wastewater treatment plant.

4. Nitrates negatively impact Primary and Secondary Clarification
The addition of nitrates is not an exact science, and unfortunately, every step along the way there are costly unintended consequences. Add too little, and you’re facing odor problems. Add too much, and you’re faced with the formation of unwanted bubble-forming gases (N2 and CO2 from denitrification) in your settling tank, exactly where you DON’T WANT IT, continuing the formation of F.O.G. mat, (as well as creating an environment unfavorable to your biological processes). This often results in increased metal salts usage or increased polymer usage and associated increases in costs.

Calcium Nitrate has a short half-life in sewers, and therefore many addition locations are required to achieve adequate system-wide control. This requires several addition locations, and corresponding higher costs and operational oversight. In contrast, a single THIOGUARD Feed Unit can often replace several nitrate feed stations, and maintain a relatively constant pH level throughout.

Maintaining a constant surface pH of 6-8 can reduce the rate of corrosion by as much as 100X. The cost of simply ignoring this problem is monumental and THIOGUARD is the only commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to increase surface pH and prevent corrosion.


  • Decrease maintenance costs
  • Decrease operating power costs
  • Decrease F.O.G. related SSOs and ARV malfunction
  • Improve efficiency due to reduced discharge pressure in manifolded force mains
  • Improve Biosolids
  • Save money and improve plant performance ACROSS THE BOARD!

Daily Dose with Dr. Oz: Magnesium

Dr. Oz Investigates…

Magnesium has been in the spotlight lately and getting a lot of attention from health experts. This mineral plays a role in the physiological functions of the brain, heart, and muscles. Researchers continue to study how it can help your health by improving sleep, fighting depression, and reducing the risk of disease. You may want to consider adding a magnesium supplement to your daily routine and eating foods that are rich in magnesium, like leafy greens and pumpkin seeds. As always, make sure to speak to your doctor before making any major health changes. Want to learn more about the benefits? Check out six of the most significant reasons to give magnesium a try.

Magnesium, Hard Water, and Health

The risk relationship between hard water and reduced cardiovascular disease is well known, but it’s the magnesium portion of the hardness that accounts for most of the beneficial effect. Most Americans consume less than the optimal daily amount of magnesium recommended for good health. Drinking water can be an important contributor, and the uptake of magnesium from drinking water is more efficient than from most dietary components. Even a small (~10 mg/L) consistent lifetime contribution from water can be an important supplement as we age.

Approximately half of the US population has been shown to consume less than the daily requirement of magnesium from foods (USDA & HHS 2015). Drinking water can be a lifetime contributor of supplemental magnesium to one’s total daily intake depending on the source water composition and the treatment it has received.


For magnesium, US levels are 330-350 mg/day for adult males, 255-265 mg/day for adult females, and 290-335 mg/day during pregnancy (IOM 2014). Dairy and water are among the most efficient uptake sources. Magnesium is chelated as the central atom in chlorophyll, so it is present in all green plants (Rosanoff 2013). Some 75% of leaf magnesium is involved in protein synthesis, and 15-20% of total magnesium is associated with chlorophyll pigments, acting mainly as a co-factor of a series of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation and metabolism (Guo et al. 2016). Most deionized bottled waters sold in the United States contain little or no magnesium (NIH 2016). Magnesium-rich mineral water could make a valuable contribution to meeting an individual’s magnesium requirement (Sabatier et al. 2002).

Overall, 56% of drinking water volume was from tap water, while bottled water provided 44% (Drewnowski et al. 2013).

Numerous diseases and disorders have been related to inadequate magnesium levels from clinical and epidemiological studies. Magnesium deficiency can cause or exacerbate numerous diseases, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes (Costello et al. 2016).

Magnesium is necessary for DNA synthesis; maintaining bone mineral density; and protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism (Romani 2013). Hundreds of magnesium-dependent enzymes are involved in phosphorylation kinases that transfer a phosphate group to the recipient small organic molecule. Kinases regulate cell-cycle growth and apoptosis (programmed cell death), in which the kinases switch on inactive molecules to functional ones.

A large number of studies have investigated the potential health effects of hardness in drinking water. Many found an inverse relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular mortality (higher hardness is associated with lower mortality). It has now been concluded that if there is a benefit of reduced cardiovascular mortality, it is associated specifically with the magnesium content rather than hardness per se. All five case-control studies showed the same inverse trend of lower risk of cardiovascular mortality and magnesium in drinking water, especially at levels greater than 5 mg/L. They included seven case-control studies and three cohort studies of acceptable quality investigating calcium or magnesium and cardiovascular disease or mortality with a total of 77,821 cases. These case-control and cohort studies were much more rigorous than ecologic studies.

On the basis of the case-control and cohort studies that were analyzed, the meta-analysis concluded that the drinking water level of magnesium was significantly and inversely associated with coronary heart disease mortality, particularly in the European populations that were studied.


The consensus document made these conclusions, among others:

Consumption of hard water is associated with a somewhat lowered risk of cardiovascular disease was probably valid, and magnesium was the more likely contributor of those benefits.

Demineralized and corrosive drinking water should be stabilized where possible with additives that will increase or reestablish calcium and magnesium levels.

Water utilities are encouraged to periodically analyze their waters for calcium, magnesium, and trace elements to help assess trends and conduct future epidemiologic studies.

Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, the WHO should consider the beneficial roles of nutrient minerals including water hardness characteristics.

Most people in the United States are consuming less than the estimated requirement of magnesium. Drinking water can provide a baseline lifetime contribution to dietary magnesium intake. Magnesium from plant-derived food is less efficiently absorbed than from dairy and water. Numerous adverse health effects have associations with inadequate magnesium levels. There are several case-control and cohort epidemiological studies that indicate beneficial effects of reduced cardiovascular mortality associated levels of magnesium in drinking water.


Enhance Phosphate Treatment with THIOGUARD®

In plants currently using metal salts, the addition of
THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide can

Increased regulation of total phosphorus limits are a fact of life, and another challenge for WWT plant operators and engineers. In most treatment plants, metal salts (ferrous/ferric or aluminum) are added for the treatment of phosphates.

Adding THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide will:

  • Minimize or eliminate the addition of metal salts
  • Enhance biological phosphorus uptake in bioreactors
  • Reduce the amount of metal-laden sludge
  • Increase agricultural phosphate recovery
  • Reduce dewatering, handling and transportation costs
  • Eliminate the need for expensive plant upgrades

THIOGUARD® is specifically formulated for maximum alkalinity
and magnesium utilization in biological processes, enhancing the
performance of metal salts in removing phosphates chemically –
while simultaneously improving biological uptake in bioreactors.



THIOGUARD® improves plant performance
Improved plant performance =
Significant Savings

Thioguard is engineered to provide maximum magnesium hydroxide and sustained alkaline utilization, enhancing the formation of metal hydroxide precipitate and increasing the adsorption of soluble phosphorus.



The benefits of adding THIOGUARD® to your treatment processes are not limited to enhanced phosphorus treatment and management. In addition, THIOGUARD® is the ONLY commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to prevent corrosion through sustainable and balanced pH levels. You will also benefit from a reduction in the formation of metal-laden sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making THIOGUARD® the practical choice for your entire system.

Preserving and Maintaining Assets with Thioguard


Sulfide gas is converted to corrosive sulfuric acid on infrastructure surfaces.

The acid dissolves concrete and metal on surfaces inside sewers and wastewater treatment plants, throughout the entire treatment and delivery process. Acidic Corrosion is prevalent in virtually every stage of the process – in your Collection System, your Headworks, in Primary and Secondary Clarifiers, in your Digesters, and in the Disinfection Processes. Corrosion is a system-wide problem, requiring a system-wide solution.


Adding or creating ALKALINITY is the most direct and effective way to neutralize the problem of excessive acidity in our water and wastewater infrastructure. However, many common treatments either provide no acid neutralization, or actually consume alkalinity in their chemistry.

Thioguard® provides the greatest power to neutralize acid over long infrastructure distances while providing additional benefits to your WWTP plant’s biological treatment processes. The chart above compares the alkalinity per gallon, among the most commonly used treatment options.


In an acidic environment (pH=2), corrosion is rampant, tearing through 2″ of concrete in as little as 8 years. When effective surface pH=4, similar corrosion levels are pushed out to 50+ years.


By reducing the acidity in your system, you’ll reduce corrosion dramatically, in some cases by as much as 100X, when compared to other treatments. Thioguard® is typically added through a single Feed Unit, and provides “corrosion-controlling” benefits throughout your system, from collection system source to treatment plant discharge.

The measured surface pH can then be used to correlate corrosion rate and subsequently, remaining years of useful life of a concrete structure.

The use of Thioguard® by direct addition has been demonstrated to elevate surface pH from a highly corrosive pH=0-2 up to a more desirable range of pH=5-9.


Thioguard® is the ONLY commonly used product that has a direct mechanism to PREVENT CORROSION. The benefits of adding Thioguard® to your treatment processes are not limited to the prevention or reduction of corrosion. You will also benefit from a reduction in the formation of sludge – significantly reducing your handling and transportation costs. The benefits are numerous and system-wide, making Thioguard® the Practical Choice for your system.


Check out our New App: The Alkulator



You can also click the button above to download the “Premier Alkulator” to your desktop, then sync up your iPhone. We’re working on a Google Play version now – we’ll let you know as soon as it becomes available!

This app calculates the alkalinity added from one of several common alkalinity supplying chemicals at a user specified dosing rate. It then computes and outputs the dose of  THIOGUARD® or TG 325 OX, that would add an equivalent amount of alkalinity.

When you utilize THIOGUARD® in your wastewater treatment plant you will maintain a narrower operational pH range, with higher buffering capacity – even over extended periods of time and variable influent conditions. THIOGUARD® delivers double the alkalinity per gallon when compared to Caustic Soda, and triple the alkalinity per gallon when compared to Lime Slurry, resulting in greater operational efficiency.

THIOGUARD® Delivers Multiple Downstream Benefits,
Improved Plant Process and Operational Cost Savings.

  • Safe, Non-Hazardous Alternative to Caustic or Lime
  • No detrimental hot spots, long lasting, slowly dissolving effect
  • Significantly less sludge = significant savings
  • System-wide benefits from source to discharge
  • Improved biosolids



Nurturing the Brain with Magnesium

At THIOGUARD®, we are concerned with all things magnesium, so when we run across an article like this one on Brain Blogger, we want to share it. It is about the health benefits of magnesium on the brain. We hope you enjoy the article.

Magnesium is everywhere – it does not occur free in nature, only in combination with other elements, but it is the eighth most abundant chemical element in the Earth’s crust and the third most abundant element in seawater; it is even the ninth most abundant in the Milky Way. In the human body, magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion and the eleventh most abundant element by mass, being stored in bones, muscles, and soft tissues.

Magnesium is fundamental for health: it is essential to all cells and to the function of hundreds of enzymes, including enzymes that synthesize DNA and RNA, and enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism, many of which are vital. Magnesium is involved in virtually every major metabolic and biochemical process in our cells and it plays a critical role in the physiology of basically every single organ.

Low plasma levels of magnesium are common and are mostly due to poor dietary intake, which has lowered significantly in the last decades. Magnesium can be found in high quantities in foods containing dietary fiber, including green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. But although magnesium is widely distributed in vegetable and animal foods, some types of food processing can lower magnesium content up to 90%. Also, the soil used for conventional agriculture is becoming increasingly deprived of essential minerals. In the last 60 years, the magnesium content in fruit and vegetables has decreased by around 20 to 30%.

Symptomatic magnesium deficiency due to low dietary intake in healthy people is not very frequent, but a consistently poor dietary supply of magnesium has insidious effects. Magnesium deficiency alters biochemical pathways and increases the risk of a wide range of diseases over time, namely hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, and migraine headaches, for example.

In the brain, magnesium is an important regulator of neurotransmitter signaling, particularly glutamate and GABA, the main neurotransmitters by modulating the activation of NMDA glutamate receptors and GABAA receptors. It also contributes to the maintenance of adequate calcium levels in the cell through the regulation of calcium channels’ activity.

These physiological roles make magnesium an essential element in important neuronal processes. Magnesium participates in the mechanisms of synaptic transmission, neuronal plasticity, and consequently, learning and memory. Accordingly, increased levels of magnesium in the brain have been shown to promote multiple mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that enhance different forms of learning and memory, and delay age-related cognitive decline. Increased levels of magnesium in the brain have also been linked to an increased proliferation of neural stem cells, indicating that it may promote the generation of new neurons (neurogenesis) in adulthood. This is an important feature because neurogenesis is a key mechanism in the brain’s structural and functional adaptability, in cognitive flexibility, and in mood regulation.

Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to modulate the neuroendocrine system and to improve sleep quality by promoting slow wave (deep) sleep, which, among many other functions, is also important for cognition and memory consolidation.

Furthermore, magnesium may enhance the beneficial effects of exercise in the brain, since it has been shown to increase the availability of glucose in the blood, muscle, and brain, and diminish the accumulation of lactate in the blood and muscles during exercise.

But just as increasing magnesium levels can be beneficial, magnesium deficiency can have serious harmful effects.

Magnesium has important roles in the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory processes and modulation of brain blood flow. In circumstances of magnesium deficiency, all of these functions can potentially be dysregulated, laying ground for neurological disorders. Also, in a context of low magnesium availability in the brain, NMDA glutamate receptors, which are excitatory, may become excessively activated, and GABAA receptors, which are inhibitory, may become insufficiently activated; this can lead to neuronal hyperactivity and to a condition known as glutamate excitotoxicity. This causes an excessive accumulation of calcium in neurons, which in turn leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen species and, ultimately, to neuronal cell death.

Magnesium deficiency has been associated with several neurological and psychiatric diseases, including migraine, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Magnesium supplementation has shown beneficial effects on many of these conditions, as well as in post-stroke, post-traumatic brain injury, and post-spinal cord injury therapies. This therapeutic action is likely due to its action in blocking NMDA glutamate receptors and decreasing excitotoxicity, in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and in increasing blood flow to the brain, all of which are determinant in the outcome of these conditions.

There are multiple benefits to be obtained from magnesium, both from a health promotion, and from a disease prevention and management perspective. The recommended daily intake of magnesium is of 320mg for females and 420mg for males. Too much magnesium from food sources has no associated health risks in healthy individuals because the kidneys readily eliminate the excess. However, there is a recommended upper intake level for supplemental magnesium, since it can cause gastrointestinal side effects. So, keep it below 350mg/day.


Caustic Soda = Volatile Price & Volatile Chemistry.


Caustic Soda is a HIGHLY CORROSIVE CHEMICAL listed on the Special Health Hazard Substance List. Caustic Soda on contact can burn the skin and the eyes and can cause permanent lung damage through inhalation. Caustic soda in contact with water can create enough heat to ignite combustibles and the resulting fire will produce poisonous gases. THIOGUARD® and THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S technical grade magnesium hydroxide is an effective, non-hazardous alternative to Caustic Soda. By converting to THIOGUARD®, wastewater utilities are able to eliminate hundreds of hazardous bulk tanker truck deliveries, thereby reducing insurance costs.

In addition, Caustic Soda freezes at a temperature of 52 degrees, rendering it useless for water treatment purposes, and creating additional hazards by creating increased pressure at valves with the potential unexpected eruptions or spills. When it comes to safety, Thioguard and Thioguard Omega-S technical grade magnesium hydroxide is clearly superior.

  • Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide) is hazardous to use, detrimental to personnel safety and biological processes
  • Sodium addition to wastewater upsets flocculation, settling, clarification and dewatering processes, driving up needs for polymer or metal salt use.


Caustic Soda is pricing is subject to a variety of pressures, from basic supply and demand issues to market manipulation – even international trade can cause price fluctuations. THIOGUARD® technical grade magnesium hydroxide offers greater “price reliability,” and delivers a safe and effective alternative to Caustic Soda.

  • Budget Uncertainty
  • Challenging Contract Management when driven to force majeure re-pricing

THIOGUARD® is a better, safe alternative to Caustic Soda.
For more information call 1.800.227.4287 or email



THIOGUARD® OMEGA-S: Nutrient Management

The chemical components of struvite (magnesium, ammonia, phosphorous) exist in every wastewater system. They are specifically found at more highly concentrated levels in biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion… yet struvite scale is not prolific at every plant. This is irrespective of their use of magnesium hydroxide. For several years, Premier has had many customers using THIOGUARD® experiencing no negative impacts from struvite.

Why? Magnesium, an ingredient in THIOGUARD®, is rarely the causative factor for struvite formation. The real explanation is the concentration ratio of the three components mentioned above, COUPLED with mechanical, hydraulic, or chemical inputs facilitating localized aqueous pH spikes, promoting high omega factors, and thus struvite formation (i.e. pump volute or mixer, turbulent elbow, excess caustic or soda ash addition).

THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S is an easy turnkey patent pending process. The THIOGUARD® ΩMEGA-S program is a small fraction of the cost of other aggressive methods. A few milligrams of Omega-S combined with THIOGUARD® treatment will insure that struvite will not form under any of the many circumstances that can cause the problem.

For more information call 1.800.227.4287 or email

There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close

My oldest son’s basketball tryouts are looming this week. He cares deeply about making the team and asked me what he should do to prepare. I suggested he sleep and eat well before the tryouts, which may not have been the novel or life-changing answer he was seeking. I gather he was hoping for a magic bullet, something that would make his muscles strong and flexible, deliver him energy, render him well rested, and keep stress at bay.

Now that I think of it, buddy, there just may be a magic mineral that does all of these things. Magnesium helps with energy, muscle strength, flexibility, sleep and stress management — everything you need.

Basketball tryouts are no joke. They involve hours of running, pivoting, head-to-toe muscle use and quick reflexes. Magnesium contributes to flexibility and helps to prevent injury by loosening tight muscles. Without enough magnesium, muscles can’t properly relax, possibly causing cramps. Low magnesium can create a buildup of lactic acid, known to cause post-workout pain and tightness. Also, much of the body’s energy comes from ATP, a molecule that captures chemical energy from food and uses it to fuel other processes in the body. ATP production depends on magnesium.

Magnesium obviously won’t build my son’s arm muscles in time for tryouts, but it does help the body produce more insulin-like growth factor, an essential part of long-term muscle growth and strength.

Magnesium helps to balance and control stress hormones. Specifically, magnesium is essential for the production of serotonin, which is responsible for relaxing the nervous system and lifting moods. Serotonin also contributes to healthy sleep. A lack of magnesium upends sleep not only because of its role in serotonin production but also because it topples the sleep regulating hormone melatonin.

Magnesium is one of the essential electrolytes needed for efficient hydration. Sorry to disappoint you kids that were hoping I’d recommend a Gatorade for your tryouts; instead, you need to eat real magnesium and potassium-rich foods, and drink lots of water. A few magnesium stars include leafy green vegetables, pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, almonds, cashews, pecans, walnuts, brown rice, avocado, beans, raw cacao, edamame and seaweed.

A winning smile won’t command my son a spot on the basketball team, but perhaps it will reveal him as a positive, eager player. Low magnesium leaves saliva with excess calcium and phosphorous, which can damage teeth and harm that winning smile.

Magnesium also builds strong bones, maintains heart health, helps to prevent diabetes by regulating blood sugar, prevents inflammation and strokes, boosts immunity, preserves a proper pH balance in the body, and relieves constipation. Phew. Magnesium might really be that magic bullet as it performs an essential role in every almost bodily function.

In fact, in the emergency room, magnesium is considered a critical medication for emergency heart, asthma, pregnancy preeclampsia and other life-threatening conditions because it has a relaxing effect and is found in every tissue.

Modern life conspires to steal our magnesium. Caffeine, phosphoric acid in soda, too much salt, extreme sweating, alcohol, prolonged stress, antibiotics and other medications drain our bodies of the much-needed mineral.

So how can a teenage boy, trying out for a basketball team, or not, obtain the recommended daily intake of 410 mg of magnesium? He can eat meals such as oatmeal for breakfast; a brown rice, black bean and avocado burrito for lunch; a banana with almond butter as a snack; and roasted chicken, sesame noodles and a spinach salad for dinner. One of the most relaxing ways to absorb magnesium is to take a bath with magnesium or Epsom salts. Our skin is our largest organ for ingestion into the blood system so magnesium baths can both relax us and contribute to our magnesium intake.

Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year.